Grupo de Categoria de Viajes a : Manu Park
Manu Park (Manu National Park Reserve):
The Manu National Park is located in the provinces of Paucartambo in Cusco and Manu in Madre de Dios. Its extension is 1,716,295 ha. It protects one of the main samples of the ecosystems of the western slope of the Andes, from the Puna grasslands to the lower Amazon Bird, passing through the cloud forests and others typical of the High Forest. The diversity of bird species it contains places this Manu Park Bird among those with the highest concentration of biodiversity worldwide in birds.
The study of hummingbird communities, the use of their flower resources and their ecology in general provide us with important information on how the hummingbird-plant interaction works in various ecosystems of the Neotropics. Hummingbirds, being a group specialized in foraging nectar, are also pollen dispersers, becoming important vectors for the pollination process. Habitat fragmentation and declines, anthropogenic pressure and climate change pose threats to pollinator populations such as hummingbirds and could irreversibly affect ecological interactions, even affecting the dynamics of an entire ecosystem – birds. In this study, the variation of the understory hummingbird community and the use of its floral resources in a dry season and a wet season were determined at the Cocha Cashu Biological Station (EBCC) in the Manu National Park, Madre de Dios department. , Peru Bird. This research was carried out from June to July and from October to November 2016. Specific richness, relative abundance and diversity indices for the hummingbird community were evaluated through transects (128 hours of observation) and catches with mist nets (288 hours / net), the species of the flowers pollinated by the community of hummingbirds, the use of these through the frequency of visits and the concentration of nectar thereof; both in a dry season and in a wet season. Variation was demonstrated in the hummingbird community as well as in the use of its floral resources in a dry season and a wet season. However, of the four variables studied, only species richness gave statistically significant results (p <0.01) based on seasonality. The hummingbird community was made up of 8 species – birds, 71 individuals in the dry season and 13 species, 94 individuals in the wet season, it was clearly evident the dominance of the hermit hummingbirds (Phaethorninae) being the most abundant species in both seasons Phaethornis hispidus. The diversity indices of Shannon Wiener (H ‟), Simpson (D-1) showed that the community in the dry season was less diverse (H‟ = 1.33) and more heterogeneous (D-1 = 0.62) than in one season. humid (H ‟= 2.02, D-1 = 0.827), while the Sorensen index (Is) determined the low turnover of species in the hummingbird community in manu park. It was determined that the families most used by the hummingbird community were Heliconiaceae (74%) and Costaceae (9%) in the dry season, while in the wet season they were Heliconiaceae (42%) Costaceae (20%) and Acantácea (12%) . Being for both times the most visited species Heliconia metallica. Finally, it was determined that there is no significant relationship between the nectar concentration and the frequency of visits of the flowers pollinated by hummingbirds (p> 0.05) at any of the times sampled bird amazon.
All the aforementioned investigations have been carried out in ecosystems of tropical humid forests, dry forests, temperate forests, and high Andean ecosystems, most of them carried out in countries such as Colombia and Mexico. However, in Peru, research in the field of pollination ecology is scarce, despite having an incredible number of hummingbird species in our territory, Manu Park is approximately 121 species (Schulenberg et al, 2010). The few investigations that exist in our country are from Salinas et al. (2006) and a recent investigation by González, O. (2016). Both carried out in high Andean ecosystems.
The Cocha Cashu Biological Station bird amazon, located within the Manu National Park, represents one of the best protected rainforest areas within our territory. Not having any anthropogenic impact, it represents a privileged place to study ecological processes without any type of alteration or disturbance. It is in this way that our study set out to determine the variation of the hummingbird community present in the EBCC and how seasonality influences both the hummingbird community and the use of its flower resources in Manu Park.