Central Peru Birdwatching
The Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park is located in the central jungle of Peru, in the department of Pasco, province of Oxapampa and the districts of Oaxaca, Pozuzo, Villa Rica and Palcazu. Its surface is 110658.25 Ha (122000 Ha according to the supreme decree that established it). The extension of this National Park is on the mountain of Yanachaga, the same that belongs to the western Andean slope. The dominant landscape of the Park are the mountains covered by forests and furrowed by deep canyons. The altitudinal variation is remarkable, from 460 to 3643 meters above sea level. This altitudinal gradient, added to its climatic variety, generates a high variety of ecological formations in a relatively small geographic space, with a consequent high biological diversity. The area of the Park is also considered to be a “refuge of the Pleistocene”, which means that it is an area that conserved wooded relicts when in the geologic period of the Pleistocene most of the areas that occupied the Amazonian forests were occupied by herbaceous ecosystems, as a consequence of severe changes climatic.The birds are an integral part of the ecosystems of mountain forest that has the Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park. They are the most well-known group in their ecological and taxonomic aspect, due to the ease of the techniques for suevaluation and monitoring. Likewise, in Peru, research has been carried out to determine its ecology, distribution ranges, sensitivity and therefore can be considered to assess the environmental conditions of a given area. Peru is the second country with the greatest diversity of birds in the world, with 1815 species that represent approximately 18.5 percent of the total number of birds on the planet and 45% of the Neotropical species. Birds in Peru are present in different ecosystems due to the variety of microclimates that the country presents, being important not only from the ecological point of view but also from the economic and social point of view. Being, birds an attractive taxonomic group for ecotourism and monitored as indicators of the environmental quality in productive activities. This work had the purpose of carrying out the information, field and cabinet survey, on the bird diversity of the Yanachaga Chemillén National Park and its buffer zone .
All the societies of the world in the history of humanity have valued and value birds for cultural, ethical, spiritual and practical or functional reasons. The role of birds in the complex chain of ecological services they provide is not new ecosystems and this premise also applies to the agricultural sector. It is enough to review the history of the cultures of Pisco, Ica and Nazca for confirm that birds are an inseparable part of their vision of the world and nature, of their artistic expressions; as well as a source of knowledge of the functioning of the ecosystems of these important coastal valleys of Peru.
In the singular case of the birds that today we can see in our farms, be it in their migratory pilgrimage or because they live and reproduce in them, it is important to keep in mind that in the world there are approximately 10,000 species of birds; and that Peru and Colombia stand out for their status as countries of greater diversity and holders of important habitats that host at least 1,800 of these bird species.