PERU BIRDS – OPEN-HABITAT TINAMOUS
These all are tinamous of grasslands and other open habitats. Bills decurved and relatively long (Rhynchotus, Nothoprocta) or relatively stubby (Nothura, Tinamotis).
AMAZON BIRDS DARWIN’S NOTHURA Nothura darwinii * 26 cm (10 ⁄4 in) Fairly common in dry grassland above 3800 m in Titicaca Basin. Locally found at similar elevations 1 1 north to central Peru; also an isolated population at ca. 1000 m in dry middle Urubamba Valley. Note very small size and strongly marked breast.
VOICE Song (Bolivia, Argentina) is a rapid, incessant series of short piping whistles.
AMAZON BIRDS Bo ORNATE TINAMOU Nothoprocta ornata * 35 cm (13⁄4 in) Uncommon to locally fairly common in grassland at 3300–4400 m. Typically in dry sites with 23 scattered bushes; may prefer sloping, rocky areas with a mixture of shrubs, bunch grasses, cushion plants, and cactus. Also found in open Polylepis scrub. Geographically variable. Southern ornata (Puno, Arequipa) is larger, paler, and browner above and has a buffier belly than branickii of central and northern Peru. Northwestern populations (La Libertad) may average more reddish brown (less gray). The most widespread grassland tinamou above 3500 m, where may overlap with the much larger Puna Tinamou. Smaller Andean Tinamou is found at lower elevations, lacks spotting on sides of head, and has a spotted breast.
VOICE Call when flushed a high, plaintive, ringing “wee’up” in a series. Also may give (Bolivia) low clucks. Bo, Ch
AMAZON BIRDS TACZANOWSKI’S TINAMOU Nothoprocta taczanowskii 36 cm (14 ⁄4 in) Little known and apparently rare or uncommon. Found in wet grassland, often near treeline, along 31 east slope of Andes, 2800–4000 m; also locally in mosaics of scrubby woods, remnant grassy areas, and fields in upper portions of intermontane valleys. Note large size, largely gray appearance, and long curved bill.
VOICE Song (?) a high, rising-falling, piercing whistle: “TU’EEEEEEeer.” Bo
AMAZON BIRDS ANDEAN TINAMOU : Nothoprocta pentlandii * 28 cm (11 in) Widespread and often fairly common on western slopes of Andes and in intermontane valleys, 4 2000–3600 m, where found in montane scrub, including edges of Polylepis, and grassland. Also locally in scrub and in open undergrowth of dry forest in Andean foothills and on lomas, 200–900 m. Plumage variable. Brownest birds, with tawny underparts and longitudinal whitish streaks on upperparts, occur in lowlands of northwest (ambigua). Other populations (including those of coast farther south) more gray breasted; also may have longitudinal whitish streaks on upperparts, although some (primarily males?; not illustrated) are blacker above, with pale gray longitudinal stripes on upperparts. The most frequently encountered small tinamou on arid and semiarid slopes of Andes, below 3500 m. Cf. Ornate Tinamou (high Andes) and Pale-browed Tinamou (north -west).
VOICE Song an explosive, rising thin whistle: “tuEEE!” or “tu-tuEEE!” E, Bo, Ch
AMAZON BIRDS : CURVE-BILLED TINAMOU : Nothoprocta curvirostris * 28 cm (11 in) Uncommon and local in humid grassland with scattered shrubs at 2800–3600 m on east slope of 5 Andes in northern and central Peru. Found in both short and tall grasses, near treeline, and on upper slopes of intermontane valleys, where occurs in a mosaic of grazed grassland, fields, and montane scrub. The most common high-elevation grassland tinamou in its range. May overlap locally with Andean Tinamou in some intermontane valleys but is slighter larger, blacker above, and tawnier and more heavily marked on breast; also note rufous on inner remiges. E
AMAZON BIRDS . RED-WINGED TINAMOU : Rhynchotus rufescens * 39–42.5 cm (151⁄4–16⁄4in) Fairly common but restricted to savannas of Pampas del Heath, where it is the only large tinamou.6 Frequently heard, but usually concealed by tall grass. Rufous primaries readily seen in flight.
VOICESong, given even in heat of day, is a mournful yet pleasing series of clear whistles, the first note
longest and rising-falling, followed by 3 stuttered, falling notes: “whooEEoo, hee’hee-hoo.” Br, Bo
AMAZON BIRDS PUNA TINAMOU Tinamotis pentlandii 42 cm (16 ⁄2 in) Uncommon in dry puna above 3900 m, especially in brushy or rocky areas. More often seen in small 71 groups than are most tinamous. Readily identified by very large size, boldly striped head, and rufous vent.
VOICE Song, usually given in chorus, is a series of musical notes, somewhat reminiscent of a wood-quail: “cuDU cuDU cuDU…” Bo, Ch
RHEA, STORKS, AND FLAMINGOS This plate is an assemblage of large, long-necked, long-legged birds. Rheas are flightless birds of dry open country. Storks are wading birds with long, heavy bills. They carry the neck outstretched in flight, with legs trailing behind; unlike other wading birds, they frequently soar and can ascend to great heights. Flamingos are wading birds with particularly long, graceful necks and long legs; most notable for distinctive “kinked” bill. All three species are highly gregarious, with preference for brackish or saline water. They feed by wading in water with head held low, bill upside down and immersed; use bill to filter tiny organisms from water.
Juveniles (not illustrated) of all species are brownish, with duller color to base of bill.
LESSER RHEA Rhea pennata * 92–100 cm (36–39 in)
Rare and local (and populations probably declining) above 4300 m in southwest. Preferred habitat
is flat open terrain with some bogs or wetlands. Usually found in small groups. Takes several years
to reach maturity. Immatures lack white feather tips of adults. Bo, Ch
[MAGUARI STORK Ciconia maguari] 110 cm (43 in)
Very rare vagrant to southeast; reported, as singles or pairs, both in lowlands of Madre de Dios and
(photographed) at 3650 m in Andes. Found in open country, usually near marshes or wet grasslands.
Similar to Wood Stork, but note feathered (not bare) neck and head, reddish tarsi, and more colorful
facial skin; also has more extensive black on wing coverts and lower back (more visible on ground
than in flight). Co, Br, Bo
WOOD STORK Mycteria americana 89–101.5 cm (35–40 in)
Most widespread stork. Uncommon in Amazonia, where found in marshes and along rivers; also rare
in similar habitats in northwest. Rare vagrant (primarily juveniles) to Andes and central and southern coast. Often gregarious and may form small flocks. Readily recognized by large size, bare head and neck, and white body with contrasting black remiges. Bill of juvenile is yellow or yellowish, and head may be partially feathered. Co, E, Br, Bo, Ch
JABIRU Jabiru mycteria 127–150 cm (50–59 in)
Rare but widespread in central and southern Amazonia; very scarce or absent from north. Also a very rare vagrant to Andes and coast. Immense, essentially all-white bird with bare black head; at close range, note bare reddish lower neck. Juvenile is brownish gray, with duller skin colors; head and neck also may be feathered. Plumage progressively whiter with age. May be seen as singles or pairs on banks of large rivers, but perhaps most often detected when soaring high overhead. Co, E, Br, Bo
JAMES’S FLAMINGO Phoenicoparrus jamesi 90 cm (35 in)
Nonbreeding visitor to south, congregating at Salinas (4300 m); very rare vagrant to coast and to
Amazonia. Smallest flamingo, with least amount of black on bill. Tarsi of adult entirely red.
Immature much duller but identifiable by size, reduced black on bill, and yellowish base to bill
(shared with Andean).
VOICE Calls higher and more screechy than calls of Chilean Flamingo. Bo,
ANDEAN FLAMINGO Phoenicoparrus andinus 110 cm (43 in)
Rarest of the three flamingos. Nonbreeding visitor to southwest, where congregates at Salinas
(4300 m); up to several hundred may be present, but typically outnumbered by the two other species.
Adult readily recognized by yellow tarsi, more prominently black rear body, and more black on wings
(extending onto tertials); also has more extensively black bill than James’s. Immature similar to
Chilean; at close range, note yellowish (not pink) base to bill and dark (not pale) iris. Br, Bo, Ch
Phoenicopterus chilensis 95–105 cm (37–41 in)
The most widespread flamingo. Breeds very locally in Andes. More widespread as nonbreeding
visitor in Andes at 3200–4600 m and on coast; often found on freshwater lakes (unlike other
flamingos). Adult readily recognized by reddish “knees” contrasting with blue-gray tarsi, and pinkish
base to bill. Long pink plumes often cover black in wing when at rest. Immature lacks pink or red;
see Andean and James’s flamingos.
VOICE Calls low grunts and gravelly, multisyllabic honks. E, Br, Br,Bo, Ch